Instruction for Authors


The Annals of Animal Resources is published twice in June and December each year by the Institute of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, and it provides results of original research in the fields of animal resource science.


The authorship should be restricted to those who should meet any of the following conditions:
1)substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study, or acquistion, interpretation and analysis of data; 2)drafting the article or revising it critically for the important intellectual content; and 3)final approval of the version to be published.

In studies of human subjects, the procedures should be in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institute Review Board (IRB) of author's institute and with the Helsinki Declaration in 1975 (revised in 2000). In the case of animal experiments, authors should keep the institutional or national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction,
"Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (" or
"Guidelines on Good Publication (" can be applied.


Original Papers: The form of publication represents original research articles on parasites, parasitic diseases, and host-parasite relationships.
Brief Communications: short reports of original researches are accepted for publication.
Reviews or Mini-Reviews: Invited or submitted review papers are accepted. A Mini-Review is a short review on a specific topic, which is included in a regular issue of the journal.

The manuscripts submitted for publication must contain no materials that violate any copyright or other personal right of any person or entity.

Article structure should be in order of abstract, introduction, materials and methods (or research methods), results and discussion (or results, discussion), conclusion, acknowledgements, and references. In addition, the manuscript should be in written in a continuous form regardless of page number. The research note should be written in accordance with the standards of article structure but should not exceed three printed pages and the prompt report should not exceed a printed page.


All manuscripts are treated as confidential. They are peer-previewed by at least 3 anonymousreviewers selected by the editor and associate editors. Letters to the Editor are reviewed and published on the decision of the editor. The corresponding author is notified as soon as possible of the editor's decision to accept, reject, or request revision of manuscripts. When the file revised manuscript is completely acceptable according to the Annals of Animal Resources format and criteria, it is scheduled for publication in the next available issue. Rejected papers will not be peer-reviewed again.


The page charge and publication fee are free.


Thirty offprints will be shipped to the corresponding author within 2 weeks after the printed journal date. For additional reprints can be ordered at current printing prices.



1) File of the manuscripts, typed double spaced in A4 paper, should be submitted to Editor-in-Chief, Institute of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, KNU Ave 1, Chuncheon Kangwon 200-701, Republic of Korea (e-mail:, Tel: +82-33-250-7227, Fax: +82-33-259-5745).
2) Each line of all pages, including the pages for literature cited and legends for figure must be numbered in the left margin area, beginning with number one at the top of the page. A 2.5 cm margin on both sides of the page is desirable. The size of letter should be large enough to be easily read (i.e. font size of at least 10 points).
3) Tables, typed double-spaced, should be as necessary and as simple as possible. Each table should be shown on a separate sheet. A11 units must be expressed according to the metric system and temperatures to the Celsius (centigrade) scale.
4) Each figure should be shown on a separate sheet. Photographs should be carefully prepared and labeled on the back with figure number. Use large enough letter and numbers especially for figures that are able to be reduced to fit proper one column in the journal. Typed material on top of graphs may not be accepted. Material that can not be reproducible satisfactorily will be returned for resubmission.
5) Manuscripts will be reviewed in the order of submission and accepted papers would also be published in the order of submission as best as possible.
6) The preferred medium of submission of revised manuscripts by senior authors is on-line submission, if required, with accompanying printed copy.
7) Authors whose native language is not English are strongly encouraged to have their manuscripts proof read prior to submission, to improve the English quality of their paper.



The first page of each manuscript starts with the title of the paper which should be typed in bold-faced font using both upper and lower case letters and should be aligned in the center of each line. Although the title should be as brief as possible, it needs to include the species of animal involved in the research when applicable. Abbreviations are not permitted in the title.
The names of the authors follow the title and authors may choose to use either initials (first and middle) or full name(s) and last name but they should be consistent and use the same format for all authors. Indications of professorial rank or other titles should not be used. Naming an author on a paper that the named person are subjected to responsibility for the research, results or conclusions of the paper.
Next, the address of the institution where the research was conducted follows and the address should include the name of the institution. This should be typed as few lines as possible using upper and lower case letters. When a paper has several authors from different institutions, key the author to the address with superscript Arabic numerals and present the additional addresses. Addresses for reprints request and any changes of address should also be given as footnotes and should be keyed using the same number system as the above. Footnotes on the first page and other text pages should be numbered and listed. A running head (an abbreviated title consisting of no more than 45 characters plus spaces) should also appear centered on the title page. Although not printed in the final version, include the phone number, and E-mail address of the contact author of the manuscript should also be typed on the title page.


The abstract, consisting of no more than 400 words, appears on a separate page following the title page. The word ABSTRACT (aligned at the center of the line) is printed in bold face using capital letter. The text of the abstract should start from the next line. The abstract should summarize pertinent results as clearly as possible. The abstract should start with a clear statement of the objectives of the research and must conclude with one or two sentences that highlight important conclusions. Literature cited is never cited in the abstract. Abbreviations appeared in the abstract that are not listed in the standard abbreviation list of AARS must be defined when they appear first in the manuscript.


At the end of the abstract, list up to six key words that represents the nature of the research. The term "Key Words" is typed in bold-faced print followed by a colon. The first letter of each key word is capitalized and key words are separated by commas. The entire key words should be listed in the new line after the body of abstract and surrounded by brackets. Key words should include the species, tested variables, and the major response criteria.


Major headings (ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION [or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION], and LITERATURE CITED) appear in roman character, with capitalized bold-faced letter. Major of review paper can not follow this rule.

However, all papers must contain an abstract, key words, and an introduction. Abbreviations should be avoided in headings.

First subheadings appear at the left margin on a separate line in bold-faced print and are not followed by punctuation. Only the first word is capitalized. First subheadings are used when subheading below major headings consist of several distinguishable contents, especially when it suits with second subheadings.

Second subheadings appear at the beginning of the first line of a paragraph. They are italicized and followed by a period. They do not require labeling! (a, b, c, etc.). Second subheadings may be used with or without first subheadings. Generally second subheadings contain three to four paragraphs in length or longer.


The introduction starts on a new page following the abstract. The introduction briefly justifies the research and specifies the hypotheses to be tested. Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be include in the discussion of results, not in the introduction.


(1) General: A clear description otherwise specific original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures used in the experimentation. Any modifications of the procedures must be explained. Diets, animals (breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions [i.e., with or without restriction of feed and (or) water]), surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should also be described clearly and fully.

(2) Statistics: Although the experimental data them selves are critical, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical commonly used methods to analyze and interpret the experimental data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the data analysis need not be described in detail, but regarding literatures should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defiled. Simple referring to a statistical without specifying the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should be matched to the interpretations and conclusions. Results of similar experiments from the same authors are recommended to be pooled statistically. Do not report the result of similar experiments repeatedly.

(3) Referred names: Brand names and company names and locations for all substances and equipment referred to in the text should be included in parentheses within the text, not in footnotes.


Results (may be combined with discussion) should be presented in tabular or figural form when it is possible. Then, the text should explain or elaborate on the tabular and figural data, but numbers should not be repeated extensively within the text. Sufficient data, with index of statistical variation, should be presented for readers to interpret clearly enough the results of the experiment.


The discussion (may be combined with results) should interpret the results logically and scientifically. The discussion should also integrate the author's findings with literatures to provide readers the logical base to accommodate the specific knowledge from manuscript. Results and literature cited to tables and figures already described in the RESULTS section should not be repeated in the DISCUSSION section.


All referances cited in the text must appear in the literarture cited section, and all items in this section should be cited in the text. References should be listed in order of citation in the text. Citations of anstracts and works in submission are not permitted. If inevitable, personal communications can be cited in the text, but not listed in the references section. Papers in press can be cited when a proof has been produced.

List all the author's names. Abbreviate journal names according to those examples used in Index Medicus and PubMed. The sequence is authors, year published, title of papers, journal name, and volume followed by pages. Follow the style shown by the examples below.

Paper and Online Published Journal Articles

Lim, D., Byun, M., Cho, Y. M., Yoon, D., Lee, S. H., Shin, Y. and Im, S. K. 2009. Functional analysis of expressed sequence tags from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) cDNA libraries. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 51:1-8.
Olukosi, O. A., Cowieson, A. J. and Adeola, O. 2007a. Age-related influence of a cocktail of xylanase, amylase and protease or phytase individually or in combination in broilers. Poult. Sci. 86:77-86.
Olukosi, O. A., Sands, J. S. and Adeola, O. 2007b. Supplementation of carbohydrases or phytase individually or in combination to diets for weanling and growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1702-1711.
Park, J. K., Lee, J. Y., Chae, B. J. and Ohh, S. J. 2009. Effects of different sources of dietary chromium on growth, blood profiles and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1547-1554.

Yoon, S. Y., Yang, Y. X., Shinde, P. L., Choi, J. Y., Kim, J. S., Kim, Y. W., Yun, K., Jo, J. K., Lee, J. H., Ohh, S. J., Kwon, I. K. and Chae, B. J. 2009. Effects of mannanase and distillers dried grain with solubles on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of grower-finisher pigs. J. Anim. Sci. online 9-11-2009 at

Journal Article with a Subtitle:

Ackerson, R. C. 198l. Osmoregulation in cotten in response to water stress: 1. Alterations in photosynthesis translocation and ultrastructure. Plant Physiol. 67:484-488.

Journal Article Accepted but not yet Published:

Li, D. F., Nelssen, J. L., Reddy, P. G., Bleccha, F., Klemm, R. D., Giesting, D, W., Hancock, J. D., Allee, G. L. and Goodband, R. D. 1999. Measuring suitability of soybean products for early-weaned pigs with immunological criteria. J. Anim. Sci. (In press).

Abstracts and Supplements:

Mahan, D. C., Weaver, E. M. and Russell, L. E. Improved post-weaning pig performance by adding NaCl or HCI to diets containing animal plasma. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):58(Abstr.).

Standard Book:

Murray, R. K., Granner, D. K., Mayes, P. A. and Rodwell, V. W. 1990. Harpers Biochemistry, 22nd ed. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut. pp. 580-590.
Kelly, D., Mulder, I. E. and Schmidt, B. 2008. Regulating gut function and immunity. In: Formula for the Future: Nutrition or Pathology. (Eds: J. Taylor-Pickard, Z. Stevenson and K. Glebocka) Wageningen Acad. Pubs. Netherlands pp. 13-21.

Thesis and Dissertation:

Lee, J. Y. 2009. De novo Application and its Physicochemical Evaluation of Gamma Irradiation for SPF Miniature-Pig Diet. Ph. D. Dissertation, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea
Trottier, N. L. 1995. Protein Metabolism for the Lactating Sow. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.

Conference Proceedings :

Lee, J. Y., Chae, B. J., Kim, S. Y., Lee, J. H., Lee, J. H., Yoon, S. M., Choi, J. Y., Lee, S. H. and Ohh, S. J. 2008. Effect of dietary DDGS and mannanase supplementation on the growth performances, nutrients utilizability and immune response of broilers fed either high or low energy diet. Proceedings of 12th AAAP Anim. Sci. Congress. pp. 325-332
Ohh, S. J. 2008. Direction of animal sciences education and student training to the future global leaders. Proceeding of 2008 Annual Congress of Korean Soc. of Anim. Sci. Technol. pp. 31-40
Shurson, J., Johnston, L., Pettigrew, J. E. and Hawton, J. 1995. Nutrition and the early weaned pig. Proceedings of the Manitoba Swine Seminar. Vol. 9:21-32

Research Reports etc.:

Lutz, T. L. and Stahly, T. S. 1996. Dietary folic acid needs of high lean growth pigs. Iowa State University. 1997. Swine Research Report. pp. 4-6.


Wubben, J. E., Smiricky, M. R., Albin, D. M. and Gabert, V. M. 2000. The effect of enzymes, steeping and dietary protein level on apparent fecal digestibility and fecal output in pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Display.cfm?ContentlD:85


Tables are used to present numerical data in a self-explanatory manner. They should be intelligible without consulting the text and should not duplicate data already given in the text or in illustrations. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. Each tables should be prepared on a separate sheet. Place tables immediately following the list of figure legends or literature cited if there are no figures. Paginate the tables in series with the text.

All tables should be cited in the text. Arabic numerals are used to number tables. The table number (i.e. Table 4.) is typed in bold face followed by a period. The title of the table continues on the same line with only the first letter capitalized. Do not use a period at the end of the title. Column headings should have the first letter of each word capitalized while the names of variables are typed with only the first letter capitalized (i.e. Average daily gain).

For numerals less than 1, insert a zero to the left of the decimal point (columns should be set up so that decimal points are aligned if possible). If there are no data for a particular entry, insert a dash. If an explanation is necessary, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g. ND) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. Care should be taken to ensure the maximum accuracy of each table. Therefore, a personally customized statistical analysis can not be used in the table. It is extremely rare to obtain the accuracy greater than
two decimal places.

Literatures cited to footnote in a table are specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case 'p' to indicate probability values (i.e. p<0.05).

Presentation of pooled standard errors, the general basis for statistical comparisons of means is recommended when variance is homogeneous. These should be presented in a separate column or row. Standard errors can be attached to each mean by ± signs when variance or SE are heterogeneous (e.g. unbalanced experiments or unequal numbers of observation in treatment means). The pooled standard error is the preferred estimate of experimental error because presenting individual standard errors tends to clutter up the table.

For diet composition, present major ingredient inclusion levels as a percentage of the total rather than in g/㎏ of diet.


Follow the rules given below for writing numbers:

(1) In general, spell out numbers one through nine and use numerals for l0 and above.
(2) Use Arabic numerasl with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3% and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc.
(3) Use Arabic numerals to express time and date (i.e. 09:00 h, and Oct. 3. 2000).
(4) If numbers are continuously used with the same style, use numerals for every case (i.e. 2 Holsteins, 6 Charolais and l5 Friesians).
(5) To write a large number ended with several zeros, a respective wording for the zero is recommended (i.e. 1.8 million rather than 1,800,000).
(6) When two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e. ten 2-d old chicks rather than l0 2-d old chicks).
(7) Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Spell it out or rearrange the sentence.
(8) Use the 24-h clock system: 09:30, 13:40 h, etc. Give day length in quantitative hours (e.g. 2 h 16 min). Abbreviate the terms hour (h), minute (min) second (s) and year (yr) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone.