Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1225-2964(Print)
ISSN : 2287-3317(Online)
Annals of Animal Resource Sciences Vol.32 No.3 pp.57-65

Effects of Sodium Nitrite and Probiotics Level on the Growth Performance, Immune Response, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Weanling Pigs

Jun-Young Mun1#, Yo-Han Choi3#, Sang-Hun Ha1, Joseph Moturi1, Tajudeen Habeeb1, Jo-Eun Kim3
1Graduate Students,
2Professor, Department of Bio-Health Convergence, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
3Researcher, Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, R.D.A


This study investigated various levels of sodium nitrite and probiotics (SNPro) combination as an alternative to zinc oxide on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora, and morphology of weaned pigs. One hundred and ninety-two weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) with an average body weight of 6.51±0.15 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments(n=6) on the basis of their initial body weight. Experimental period was divided into phase 1 and 2 (each 14 days). The dietary treatments were: 1) Basal diet (control), 2) SNPro1 (control+0.01% SNPro), 3) SNPro2 (control+0.02% SNPro), 4) SNPro3 (control+0.03% SNPro). The average daily gain when SNPro was added to the diet was 288, 309, 319, 324 g in phase 1, 355, 387, 410, 407 g in phase 2 and 321, 348, 364, 366 g in the overall. The concentration of interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 in serum when SNPro was added to the diet were 15, 13.5, 13, 12.8 ng/ml and 165, 162, 155, 145 ng/ml (p<0.05) but toll-like receptor 4 and immunoglobulin G levels in serum were no significantly different. The colonization of Escherichia coli in the ileum and Salmonella spp. in the caecum were significantly decreased as SNPro level increased (p<0.05). However, the population of Lactobacillus spp. did not differ among the groups. Although villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were not significantly affected by the treatments, crypt depth in the jejunum was 599, 586, 615, 599 ㎛ as SNPro level increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, SNPro had beneficial effects on growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and morphology weaned pigs. Therefore, SNPro not only can be considered as an alternative for the pharmacological level of zinc oxide in weaning pigs but also ideal dietary SNPro level was 0.02%.